Scientific References

1. Rose L, Rose J, Gosling S, Holmes M. Efficacy of a Probiotic-Prebiotic Supplement on Incidence of Diarrhea in a Dog Shelter: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Vet Intern Med. 2017 Mar;31(2):377-382. doi: 10.1111/jvim.14666. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

2. Finet S, He F, Clark LV, de Godoy MRC. Functional properties of miscanthus fiber and prebiotic blends in extruded canine diets. J Anim Sci. 2022 Apr 1;100(4):skac078. doi: 10.1093/jas/skac078.

3. Segarra S, Martínez-Subiela S, Cerdà-Cuéllar M, Martínez-Puig D, Muñoz-Prieto A, Rodríguez-Franco F, Rodríguez-Bertos A, Allenspach K, Velasco A, Cerón J. Oral chondroitin sulfate and prebiotics for the treatment of canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. BMC Vet Res. 2016 Mar 10;12:49. doi: 10.1186/s12917-016-0676-x.

4. Glanemann B, Seo YJ, Priestnall SL, Garden OA, Kilburn L, Rossoni-Serao M, Segarra S, Mochel JP, Allenspach K. Clinical efficacy of prebiotics and glycosaminoglycans versus placebo In dogs with food responsive enteropathy receiving a hydrolyzed diet: A pilot study. PLoS One. 2021 Oct 21;16(10):e0250681. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250681.

5. Panasevich MR, Daristotle L, Quesnell R, Reinhart GA, Frantz NZ. Altered fecal microbiota, IgA, and fermentative end-products in adult dogs fed prebiotics and a nonviable Lactobacillus acidophilus. J Anim Sci. 2021 Dec 1;99(12):skab347. doi: 10.1093/jas/skab347.


1. Rossi G, Pengo G, Caldin M, Palumbo Piccionello A, Steiner JM, Cohen ND, Jergens AE, Suchodolski JS. Comparison of microbiological, histological, and immunomodulatory parameters in response to treatment with either combination therapy with prednisone and metronidazole or probiotic VSL#3 strains in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 10;9(4):e94699. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094699. PMID: 24722235; PMCID: PMC3983225.

2. Rak MB, Moyers TD, Price JM, Whittemore JC. Clinicopathologic and gastrointestinal effects of administration of prednisone, prednisone with omeprazole, or prednisone with probiotics to dogs: A double-blind randomized trial. J Vet Intern Med. 2023 Mar;37(2):465-475. doi: 10.1111/jvim.16672. Epub 2023 Mar 23. PMID: 36951379; PMCID: PMC10061193.

3. White R, Atherly T, Guard B, Rossi G, Wang C, Mosher C, Webb C, Hill S, Ackermann M, Sciabarra P, Allenspach K, Suchodolski J, Jergens AE. Randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effect of multi-strain probiotic on the mucosal microbiota in canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. Gut Microbes. 2017 Sep 3;8(5):451-466. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2017.1334754. Epub 2017 Jul 5. PMID: 28678609; PMCID: PMC5628651.

4. Ren Z, Zhao Z, Wang Y, Huang K. Preparation of selenium/zinc-enriched probiotics and their effect on blood selenium and zinc concentrations, antioxidant capacities, and intestinal microflora in canine. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011 Jun;141(1-3):170-83. doi: 10.1007/s12011-010-8734-x. Epub 2010 Jun 19. PMID: 20563665.

5. Pilla R, Suchodolski JS. The Role of the Canine Gut Microbiome and Metabolome in Health and Gastrointestinal Disease. Front Vet Sci. 2020 Jan 14;6:498. Doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00498. PMID: 31993446; PMCID: PMC6971114.


1. Chastant-Maillard S, Aggouni C, Albaret A, Fournier A, Mila H. Canine and feline colostrum. Reprod Domest Anim. 2017 Apr;52 Suppl 2:148-152. doi: 10.1111/rda.12830. Epub 2016 Nov 30. PMID: 27910138.

2. Rossi L, Lumbreras AEV, Vagni S, Dell'Anno M, Bontempo V. Nutritional and Functional Properties of Colostrum in Puppies and Kittens. Animals (Basel). 2021 Nov 15;11(11):3260. doi: 10.3390/ani11113260. PMID: 34827992; PMCID: PMC8614261.

3. Alonge S, Aiudi GG, Lacalandra GM, Leoci R, Melandri M. Pre- and Probiotics to Increase the Immune Power of Colostrum in Dogs. Front Vet Sci. 2020 Nov 6;7:570414. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.570414. PMID: 33240949; PMCID: PMC7681242.

Apple Cider Vinegar

1. Launholt TL, Kristiansen CB, Hjorth P. Safety and side effects of apple vinegar intake and its effect on metabolic parameters and body weight: a systematic review. Eur J Nutr. 2020 Sep;59(6):2273-2289. doi: 10.1007/s00394-020-02214-3. Epub 2020 Mar 13. PMID: 32170375.

2. Pyo YH, Lee DB, Lee YW, Yoon SM, Lee AR. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipogenic Action of Acetic Acid and Monascus-Fermented Grain Vinegar: A Comparative Study. J Med Food. 2022 Apr;25(4):418-425. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2021.K.0156. Epub 2022 Mar 23. PMID: 35333623.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

1. Roush JK, Cross AR, Renberg WC, Dodd CE, Sixby KA, Fritsch DA, Allen TA, Jewell DE, Richardson DC, Leventhal PS, Hahn KA. Evaluation of the effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2010 Jan 1;236(1):67-73. doi: 10.2460/javma.236.1.67. PMID: 20043801.

2. Lorke M, Willen M, Lucas K, Schille JT, Lüder Ripoli F, Willenbrock S, Beyerbach M, Wefstaedt P, Murua Escobar H, Nolte I. Effect of antioxidants, mitochondrial cofactors and omega-3 fatty acids on telomere length and kinematic joint mobility in young and old shepherd dogs - A randomized, blinded and placebo-controlled study. Res Vet Sci. 2020 Apr;129:137-153. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2020.01.008. Epub 2020 Jan 10. PMID: 32000015.

3. Westgarth S, Blois SL, D Wood R, Verbrugghe A, Ma DW. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and aspirin, alone and combined, on canine platelet function. J Small Anim Pract. 2018 May;59(5):272-280. doi: 10.1111/jsap.12776. Epub 2017 Nov 9. PMID: 29120035.

4. Tu T, Li B, Li X, Zhang B, Xiao Y, Li J, Qin F, Liu N, Sun C, Liu Q, Zhou S. Dietary ω-3 fatty acids reduced atrial fibrillation vulnerability via attenuating myocardial endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in a canine model of atrial fibrillation. J Cardiol. 2022 Feb;79(2):194-201. doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2021.08.012. Epub 2021 Oct 23. PMID: 34702603.


1. Mitsuhashi, Y., Bigley, K. E., & Bauer, J. E. (2013). Lipid metabolic alterations and satiety with a pumpkin-based supplement in obese dogs. Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, 3, 11.

2. Marie-Magdeleine, C., Mahieu, M., & Archimède, H. (2011). Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poir.) seeds as an anthelmintic agent?. In Nuts and seeds in health and disease prevention (pp. 933-939). Academic Press.


1. Abdelrahman N, El-Banna R, Arafa MM, Hady MM. Hypoglycemic efficacy of Rosmarinus officinalis and/or Ocimum basilicum leaves powder as a promising clinico-nutritional management tool for diabetes mellitus in Rottweiler dogs. Vet World. 2020 Jan;13(1):73-79. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2020.73-79. Epub 2020 Jan 10. PMID: 32158154; PMCID: PMC7020113.

2. Ebani, V. V., Nardoni, S., Bertelloni, F., Najar, B., Pistelli, L., & Mancianti, F. (2017). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils against pathogens responsible for otitis externa in dogs and cats. Medicines, 4(2), 21.


1. EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP), Bampidis, V., Azimonti, G., Bastos, M. D. L., Christensen, H., Fašmon Durjava, M., ... & Dusemund, B. (2023). Safety and efficacy of a feed additive consisting of a tincture derived from the fruit of Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (parsley tincture) for use in all animal species (FEFANA asbl). EFSA Journal, 21(1), e07694.

2. Gompf, R. E. (2005). Nutritional and herbal therapies in the treatment of heart disease in cats and dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 41(6), 355-367.

Fennel Seed
1. Al-Sagan, A. A., Khalil, S., Hussein, E. O., & Attia, Y. A. (2020). Effects of fennel seed powder supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and economic efficiency of broilers under thermoneutral and chronic heat stress conditions. Animals, 10(2), 206.

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